Why You Should Hire A Business Lawyer Salt Lake City Facilitates

If you are a business owner, a business lawyer Salt Lake City facilitates is one of the best investments you can make. A litigation attorney can help you prepare the necessary documentation for lawsuits and other arbitrary matters. A lawsuit can happen if there is a customer or professional that makes a claim against your company.

When a party has a dispute with a company that cannot be solved by negotiations or arbitration, a lawsuit could happen. For this purpose, a litigation attorney’s services are paramount. A litigation attorney may act as a representative during government investigations, international disputes, complex contracts, professional relationships, torts, financial forensics, class actions, and so forth.

If your establishment has any complex arrangements, you need quality service counsel. Financial tragedies can be avoided and your complex arrangements can be effectively managed. Your advocate can resolve any difficult situation through arbitration or mediation. If your advocate has enough experience, he can help you navigate and explore the complex languages of administrative law.

Your government may require your establishment to act within the regulations and guidelines they set forth. If you do not follow the administrative obligations, you might find yourself paying steep fines. Your government’s administrative laws can be complex to understand and difficult to navigate. If you run a real estate company, you probably need a litigation advocate.

If real estate is the nature of your business, a law counsel can facilitate safe transactions of deeds or titles between you and the buyer. If a malicious lawsuit or a personal injury claim is made against your company, effective law counsel can help soften adverse legal actions or even get the case dropped against you. You will be better served if you hire a law counselor that resides in the state that you operate in, because administrative laws differ between states.

A legal counselor can help you protect your company assets as well as your personal. Whether you run a large establishment or a small one, a law counselor can help you. The quality of your attorneys depends on the firm that he is associated with and his experience. Their job is to help you abide by the local laws.

Litigation is not the only reason an establishment needs law counsel. When an establishment is being sued, some say that it is already a moment too late. Many companies common neglect law counsel until they are under pressure when the sheriff is knocking on the door with a legal summons. The most effective time to hire a law counsel is before any lawsuits or fines occur.

Once an establishment has been served with a court summons and a complaint, the problem has already festered too long. Quality law counsel can ensure that the court summons never reaches an establishment’s door. When an establishment is served with a court order, it then becomes just a matter of attorney fees, settlements, court costs, and other unnecessary expenses.

Whether an establishment needs a large or small firm, a business lawyer Salt Lake City has will be able to help. Typically, the larger a firm is, the better service they provide, but they cost more. This does not mean that a single law counsel would not be as effective with fewer costs.

Tips for finding the right personal injury lawyer

When a person becomes injured because of someone else’s negligence it is known as personal injury. An example is, if your landlord forgot to fix the pipe leaking in the garden and you slipped and hurt your hip or if a company produces a product that is harmful to consumers. Some other examples are car accidents, work place accidents, slips and falls, all come under personal injury.
If you are caught in such conditions and you had to change the way you live as a result of accident and you bogged down from medical bills while trying to recover then you need to consult a personal injury attorney to be compensated.
If you have been injured in any of the situations mentioned above then you need to investigate what your rights are. An experienced personal injury lawyer can help you understand if you have a claim and what the claim involves. It is not advisable to make a personal injury claim by yourself.
Not hiring a personal injury lawyer can save your money but dont do it. Making a personal injury claim is not that easy as it involves a lot of paper work and you have to fill everything smartly and correctly and if you dont do so it could cause you more trouble. Also if you are injured seriously its not good for you to running around for your claim. Therefore it always better to hire an experienced lawyer to claim your rights.
You can find many lawyers in World Wide Web; you may search on Google or any other search engines. There are many lawyers listed in local directories and Yellow Pages as well, but not all of them may be efficient enough to handle your case. So how to find the right lawyer for your case? Here are some useful tips for finding the right lawyer for your personal injury case
Begin your search by looking for a lawyer that specializes in personal law injury. Browse on the web or look at telephone directories, wherein you find lots of lawyers who can assist you with your personal injury case.
Its not that easy to get an appropriate lawyer so you need to be a bit patient throughout your search.
Call the associations who provide legal assistance for the personal injury case.

Analyze the lawyer on all grounds such as experience, no. of cases he/she has fought. Thereafter discuss the fees and the mode of payment. If agree with the fees and the terms and conditions then you can hire him.

Dont take decisions instantly; just take your time, if you are doubtful about anything make it clear and finally, after signing the agreement leave everything on your divorce lawyer.

Always give priority to court room experience as things are entirely different inside the court and you may face conditions and questions you are not aware of. A lawyer with enough court room experience can help you in such condition.

You must hire the best and experienced personal injury lawyer to present your case. We advise to follow tips mentioned above for finding the lawyer. Remember personal injury is a serious issue and should not be taken lightly.

Becoming A Self-employed Entrepreneur The Netherlands

Registration in the Dutch trade register is compulsory for every company and every legal entity, including ‘freelance’ and ‘zzp’ (‘zelfstandige zonder personeel’ or self-employed without staff).

When you have decided to start your own business a new world is opening up, with a wide variety of possibilities. You could open a shop or start your own consultancy firm; become a full-time or a part-time entrepreneur. Clients may wish to hire you for advice or construction work.
Before plucking up which is planted, there is a time to plant. In other words: you will have to be prepared to tackle challenges as well – either as a provider of services or products, as a self-employed entrepreneur, a sole trader, an independent contractor, or as a freelancer or so-called “ZZP-er”.

The risky side of freedom and independence

Whether you offer services or products: you will do so at your own risk, expense and with full responsibility towards third parties. As well as this, being self-employed entails certain obligations, such as paying taxes and VAT and keeping records of your business activities. Preparing well is the best way to start. You are definitely not on your own; the Dutch business world offers plenty of competent assistance.

Starting point

Before you visit the Chamber of Commerce to register your enterprise, you should have considered the following:

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value
The Ministry of Economic Affairs awards points for each criterion. You will need a minimum of 30 points for each criterion (total number for all criteria: 300).

The scoring system consists of three parts:

a) Personal experience (education, experience as a self-employed person, working experience);
b) Business plan (market analysis, product/service, price, organisation, financing);
c) Material economic purpose for the Netherlands (innovative, job creation, investments).

You should always contact the IND to find out about the procedure involved in testing the economic interest of the enterprise you intend to start. For nationals of some countries, for example Turkey, special rules apply on the basis of treaties between the EU and these countries. And when you are from the United States of America, it is important to know there is the so-called Nederland-Amerikaans’ vriendschapsverdrag’.

Taking your business from abroad

The Dutch comparative companies Act recognises all foreign legal entities except businesses owned by one man or one woman. If you run a one-person business in your country of origin and you can prove this, for example by submitting a copy of registration in a commercial register in that country, you can bring this enterprise to the Netherlands and have it registered at the Chamber of Commerce as a Dutch one-man or -woman business.

Other legal foreign entities or foreign business forms are simply registered as a foreign legal entity with commercial activities.

Please note that you will still have to comply with the IND residency rules

Starting a branch office in the Netherlands

There is a question of a branch when long-lasting business operations, which form part of the foreign enterprise, are (being) conducted in the Netherlands. A branch can be: a sales office or a production company, but also a representative office. It does not have an independent legal form, but is a part of the foreign enterprise.

Dutch law recognises foreign legal entities. In other words: the foreign legal entity wishing to start activities in the Netherlands needs not be converted into a Dutch legal form.

A business plan is essential

No matter small or big the business is, a business plan will help you identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.

Banks require a business plan when you take out a loan. Even if you do not need the latter, and financing your enterprise is not a problem, a business plan will definitely help you understand the impact of starting a business. Submitting a business plan is also one of the criteria set for non-EU and non-EEA nationals to be allowed to start their own enterprise in the Netherlands.

Get started: Write the plan yourself

Crucial questions you should ask are:

* Which legal form will best suit the enterprise?
* Which products or services will you offer?
* Who will be your clients?
* Promotional activities to get contracts?
* How to optimize visibility to your target group?
* Which prices and fees?
* Financial plan (available budgets, expected turnover, investments)?
* Which insurances do you need?
* Permits and/or licences required?
* Administrational organisation, which form?
* What should be included in your General Terms and Conditions if applicable?

Formats

Business plan formats can be obtained from various private parties that specialise in supporting starters. Just surf the internet. Small business planner at http://www.sba.gov/ is a useful site.

Employment law issue: employed or self-employed?

If you go freelance, you should pay extra attention to your situation, because the term ‘freelancer’ is not a definition recognized by law. Freelancers operate somewhere in between being self-employed and being in paid employment.

As an independent entrepreneur you pay taxes and contributions yourself, and you are not entitled to rights employers are: minimum wage, paid holidays, a holiday allowance, statutory safeguards against dismissal and a statutory notice period.

In order to designate the employment relationship while starting your business, it is important to consider different contracts and apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration.

Employment on the basis of a contract and implied employment

Regardless of the title chosen for the contract with your client, it is considered an employment contract if the following criteria are met:

* your remuneration for the work performed can be seen as wages;
* there is an obligation to do the work yourself: you cannot send someone else to do the job for you. Having to be available for specific work, e.g. on-call service, will also be considered as work performed in employment;
* a relationship of authority: the employer can determine where, when and how the work should be carried out. This relation also exists if the work you do is an essential element in the employer’s business operations or if the employer’s profitability is at risk without you.

If the working relation does not show all characteristics of a “proper” employment relation, it may still be seen as one. This is called a notional employment relationship: although the employment relation has not been established explicitly, there is an implicit employer-employee relation. Consequently, the fee you charge is seen as wage, so, the employer will have to deduct taxes from your wages and pay national insurance and employee insurance contributions.

A notional employment relation exists if:

* you work for a client project for at least at two days a week;
* you earn more than 40% of the minimum wages for the project a week;
* the relation with the client lasts more than 30 days; a new contract within one month after the termination of the first contract is seen as continuation of the previous contract.

A notional employment does not exist if actual and practical independence can be proven, for which a VAR can be instrumental.

Commercial contracts

As a self-employed entrepreneur you or your client can initiate to formalise the contractor-client relation by entering into a commercial contract. Parties should always insist on putting down the arrangements agreed upon.
There are two types of commercial contracts:
1. Service agreement – Under this type of contract you are obliged to perform to the best of your ability, committing yourself to do your client’s work without being employed by him. The work is usually classified as services’.
2. Contractor agreement – Under this type of contract you have a specific target obligation. You commit yourself to produce a concrete, tangible object at a certain price.

Criteria for legal independence: Actual circumstances are decisive here. An official statement signed by client and yourself that the contract is a commercial one is helpful proof. Criteria are:

* the degree of independence and absence of supervision/authority;
* permanence;
* pursuit of profit;
* clientele.

Not just these criteria, but their interconnection especially plays a decisive role.

De Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR)

In order to designate the employment relationship you can apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration. The VAR is an official statement. Based upon the applicant’s information the Tax Administration will define income as:

* Income earned in employment: the freelancer will have a VAR income.
* Income earned from other proceedings: the freelancer will have a VAR-row.
* Profit from enterprise: the freelancer will have a VAR-wuo.
* Partnership’s own risk and account: the freelancer will have a VAR-dga.

VAR-income and -row: employed or not?

With a view to the VAR-income and row, the employer will have to define and check whether he should pay income tax and employees insurance premiums, based upon the existence of an employment contract or otherwise. Explanatory assistance but no definite answer! – can be found at the website of the Ministry of Finance. The Tax Administration may conclude differently.

VAR-wuo and dga: certainty in advance

Only VAR-wuo or -dga supply the employer beforehand with complete financial certainty provided he meets the following conditions:

* The freelancer’s activities should be similar to the VAR’s description. So, the freelancer is not entitled to carry out IT work if the VAR denotes carpentry.
* The freelancer is on the job during the validity of the VAR (1 calendar year).
* The VAR should be the authentic original.
* The employer should determine the freelancer’s identity on the basis of a valid proof of identity (not driver’s licence). Copies of the VAR and proof of identity should be kept in the administration for seven years.

Having acted this way, the employer has a solid defence in case the Tax Administration or UWV may reach another verdict afterwards. So, it may be wise for both freelancers and employers to object against a VAR-income or -row.

VAR application

Bearing in mind the utmost importance of the VAR-outcome, it is obviously important to carefully fill out the VAR-form. Only the freelancer him/herself is allowed to apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR); the employer is not entitled to do this. A directeur-groot aandeelhouder (DGA) should apply for a VAR in case of external consultancy.

The Tax Administration provides a digital VAR application form; to which you will get a reply within 8 weeks. If additional information is needed, the Tax Administration will contact the applicant.

Please note the following when filling out the form: The Tax Administration considers request as a total, coherently, and takes the activities into account. If not all answers are favourable it does not necessarily mean that no VAR-wuo will be given. For example: an interim manager with two or more employers can still be entitled to a VAR-wuo.

The freelancer should write down reasonable expectations. If, however, the actual situation afterwards turns out to have been differently, this will not have any consequences as long as the deviation is within normal risk of enterprise limits. For example, the freelancer expected to have 3 or more employers, but due to a recession this turned out differently.

The freelancer has to fill out the form to the best of his knowledge and should not deliberately misrepresent the state of affairs. If this should afterwards be proven to have been the case, the Tax Administration will recover the indebted taxes and premiums from the freelancer.

Some of the questions need a yes’ or no’ only; choose the nearest suitable.

Relation employer/former employer

As a part-time independent entrepreneur / part-time employee you could get involved in a conflict of interest with your (former) employer. If you intend to provide services, comparable to the ones he provides, you better ask his permission/advice to run your own business.

Starting a business as a full-time independent entrepreneur you should be aware of a possible conflict of interests as well. You probably signed a non-competition clause within your employment contract that remains valid after termination of employment. In any case it is wise to contact/consult your (former) employer of your intentions.

Legal forms and registration of an enterprise

The Chambers of Commerce can answer your questions about the legal environment of your business. Seminars and other regular services are available.

The majority of starting entrepreneurs either choose a one-man business or a general partnership as the legal form for their business, according to their preference on doing business by themselves or in cooperation with others.

In order to accommodate the starting entrepreneur or professional, Dutch law recognizes various legal forms, such as a one-man business, a private limited company (BV), a partnership or a limited partnership. The main issues at stake are the matter of liability if your enterprise should run up debts, and which tax regime applies.

One-person business

One-person business (lit. one-man in Dutch: eenmanzak) is also referred to as sole trader or sole proprietorship or independent contractor.

If you start a one-person business you will be the fully independent founder and owner. More than one person may work in a one-person business, but there can only be one owner. A one-person business can also employ personnel.

Setting up

You can establish a one-person business without a notarial deed. Registration in the Trade Register is mandatory. As a private individual you can only register one one-man business. However, you can have more than one trade name and carry out various business activities under different trade names. These activities can be carried out at the same or at another address, as a branch office of the one-man business.

Liability

As the owner of a one-person business you are responsible for everything concerning your enterprise; for every legal act and all its assets and liabilities. No distinction is made between private and business property. Thus, business creditors can seek recovery from your private property and private creditors from your business property. If your one-man business goes bankrupt, you yourself go bankrupt as well.

If the owner of a one-person business should be married in a community of property regime, the creditors may also lay claim to the partner’s property. Partner liability can be avoided by a prenuptial or a postnuptial agreement drafted by a civil-law notary. However, since partners are usually requested to co-sign when taking a loan, the agreement may not offer the protection expected. A civil-law notary can provide more information.

Taxes and social security

The profit made in a one-person business is taxed in box 1 income tax. If the Tax Administration fully considers you an entrepreneur, you are entitled to tax allowances such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

The owner of a one-person business cannot claim social benefits under the Sickness Benefits Act, the Work and Income Act and the Unemployment Insurance Act. Therefore, it is advisable to take out insurances to cover these risks. You will qualify for the following national insurance schemes:

* General Old Age Pensions Act
* -Surviving Dependants Act
* Exceptional Medical Expenses Act
* General Child Benefit Act

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

With a one-man business no distinction is made between private and business. If you die, both business and private property will fall into your heirs’ estate. You will need to make provisions to guarantee your business’ continuity. A tax consultant could provide more details.

B. General partnership, the “VOF”

A general partnership is a form of cooperation in which you run a business with one or more business partners. You and your partner(s) are the associates or members of the general partnership. One of the characteristics of this legal form is that each partner contributes something to the business: capital, goods, efforts (work) and/or goodwill.

Setting up

A partnership contract is not a statutory requirement for the formation of a general partnership, but it is, of course, advisable to put down in writing what you and your business partner(s) have agreed upon. A partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* name of the general partnership;
* objective;
* contributions by partners in capital, knowhow, goodwill, assets and efforts (work);
* distribution of profits and offset of loss;
* allocation of powers;
* arrangements in case of illness;
* arrangements for a partner’s days off/ holiday.

Liability

An important characteristic of the general partnership is the joint and separate liability of the partners. Each partner can be held fully liable – including private property – if the general partnership fails to meet its obligations, even if these obligations were entered into by another, authorised partner. Creditors of the partnership may seek recovery from your business property and your private property and the property of the other partner(s). Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal effectiveness towards third parties.

The general partnership usually has separate capital’, i.e. the business capital contributed by the partners, which is kept apart from their private property and capital. This capital is to be solely used for business purposes. Should one or more creditors seek recovery from the partnership – for instance in the case of bankruptcy – they could do so from the separate capital. If this should be inadequate to pay the partnership’s debts, creditors may seek full recovery from the partners’ private property. If so, you could hold the other partner(s) liable for having failed to meet their obligations, but only after the creditors have been paid. In private matters creditors of partners cannot seek recovery from the partnership’s business assets or the private property of the other partner(s).

Because of this partners’ broad liability it is advisable to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted if you are married under a community of property regime. A civil-law notary could provide you with more information.

Taxes and social security

Each partner will pay their own income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to all kinds of tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply for the entrepreneur partner as for the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the general partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the general partnership, the partners can include a clause in the partnership contract arranging for the other partners to continue the general partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

C. Limited partnership, the “CV”

A limited partnership, the “CV”, is a special type of general partnership (VOF). The difference is that the CV has two types of business partners: general, and limited or sleeping partners. The latter are only financially involved; they cannot act on behalf of the partnership. Besides, the name of a limited partner cannot be used in the trade name of the limited partnership.

Setting up

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for a limited partnership, but, again, partners better put down the agreements. Apart from the matters mentioned in the VOF, the contract should arrange the distribution of profit between general and limited partners. When registering a limited partnership in the Trade Register, the personal details of the general partners are listed; the details concerning the limited partners are restricted to total number and their contributions in the partnership.

Liability

General partners can be held fully liable if the partnership fails to meet its obligations. Bankruptcy of the limited partnership will automatically lead to the general partners’ bankruptcy (not applicable to limited partners). A limited partner can only be held liable to the maximum sum contributed to the partnership. However, should the limited partner act on behalf of the partnership, he will be seen as a general partner and fully liable, in which case creditors of the partnership can lay claim on his private property as well. Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal force towards third parties.

The general partners’ liability in a limited partnership is quite broad, so, if partners are married under a community of property regime they are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security

General partners pay income tax on their share in the profit. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-person business. Limited partners, who cannot be held personally liable for the enterprise’s debts, are not seen as entrepreneurs by the Tax Administration.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the limited partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the limited partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

D. Professional partnership, the maatschap’

The partnership referred to as maatschap’ under Dutch law differs from the general partnership and the limited partnership in that it is a form of cooperation established by professionals such as doctors, dentist, lawyers, accountants, physiotherapists etc., rather than a cooperation established for the purpose of doing business. The partners are referred to as maten’ instead of partners’. Each maat’ contributes personal efforts, capital and/or assets. The purpose is to share the income earned on the one hand and the expenses incurred on the other.
Setting up a professional partnership

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for the formation of a professional partnership, but partners better lay down their agreements with the other professionals in a partnership contract. This partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* contributions made by the partners;
* distribution of profits, pro rata each partner’s contribution – distributing all profit to one partner is not allowed;
* allocation of powers – each partner is entitled to perform management acts, unless agreed upon otherwise; as of 1 July 2008 the professional partnership has to register in the Trade Register. This does not apply to partnerships that only act internally, such as a partnership in which costs are pooled.

Liability

Each authorised partner can enter into a contract, thus binding the partnership: all partners. Each partner can be held liable for an equal part. If a partner should act beyond his authorization, the other partners will in principle not be held liable: the partner in question is the only partner that has bound himself. A professional partnership has no separate capital’ from the private assets of the partners. Creditors having a claim on the partnership can only seek recovery for equal parts from the individual partners; these creditors do not rank above creditors who have a claim on the private assets of a partner. To a married partner the same reservations apply as to the general partners in general partnerships and limited partnerships. They are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security
Each partner pays income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, he is entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. Regarding social security the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-man business

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the professional partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

E. Private company with limited liability, BV’

In contrast to the legal forms described above – enterprises run by natural persons – the private limited is a legal person: a person having rights and obligations, just like a natural person. The natural person who has incorporated the private limited cannot be held liable, in principle, for the debts incurred by the private limited. The BV itself is seen as the entrepreneur, whereas the natural person who is appointed director merely acts on behalf of the BV and cannot be held personally liable for his acts. A private limited company can be incorporated by one person a sole shareholder BV or by more persons. The capital of a private limited is divided in shares.

Incorporating

This involves a number of statutory requirements, most important of which:
Incorporation takes place through a notarial deed. This should include the articles of association of the company. The civil-law notary will check the legal contents of the articles.
A certificate of no-objection from the Ministry of Justice must be submitted before the incorporation can be effected. The Ministry checks whether the person incorporating the company has ever been involved in bankruptcy proceedings or fraud cases.

The incorporation of a BV requires a minimum capital of EUR 18,000 (cash or in kind) in the private limited.

Liability

The shareholder’s liability is limited to the total sum of his participation. Since the BV is a legal person, having its own independent rights and obligations, the persons involved – directors and supervisors – cannot be held liable for the debt of the company. In other words: the company’s creditors can never seek recovery from the private assets of these officers. However, a company director or officer may be held liable as a private person if he has acted negligently or culpably. If they are responsible for the company’s bankruptcy because of wrongful or fraudulent behaviour in the company’s policy, creditors of the company may file a claim against them.

In the formation phase of the company, a director may be liable for the company’s acts. This liability ends as soon as the legal person is incorporated and the acts are confirmed by the company. As long as the company has not been registered in the Trade Register, directors’ and officers’ liability continues. In practice, limited liability often does not apply because banks require the director and principal shareholder of the company to co-sign for loans taken out on behalf of the BV.

Taxes and social security

The private limited pays corporation tax also referred to as company income tax on the profits earned. The BV’s director and shareholder are employed by the BV His eligibility for social security under the Dutch social security laws depends on the relation of authority between himself and the private limited. A relation of authority is considered not to exist if:

* the director, possibly with his or her spouse, can cast more than 50% of the votes in the shareholders’ meeting;
* two thirds or more of the shares are held by the director and/or close relatives up to the third degree;
* the director cannot be dismissed against their will.

Without a relation of authority, the director and shareholder cannot rely on the social security insurances. He will have to take out his own insurances; to him the same rules apply as to the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Continuation of the company is secured by the fact that the BV is a legal person that exists independently from the persons having incorporated or managing the private limited. When the director dies, the continuation of the enterprise is not at risk, viz. the enterprise is run by the BV and a new director will have to be appointed.

A private limited can be sold in two different ways:

* BV’s shares are sold;
* BV’s enterprise (machines, inventory, stocks, etc.) is sold.

If the shares are sold, the proceeds are subject to income tax (box 2) if the shareholder has a substantial interest (holder of a minimum of 5% of the shares).

If the enterprise is sold, the BV will have to pay corporation tax on the profit or book profit on the sale. If the shareholder of the BV selling the enterprise is a BV itself, the structure is referred to as a holding – advantage of which: the holding will in principle have to pay taxes on the proceeds.

Registration of your enterprise

Before you are allowed to start your business operations, you have to register your enterprise in the Dutch Trade Register, which is administered by the Chambers of Commerce. Registrations in the Trade Register are public; everyone can check whether a particular person is authorised to act on behalf of an enterprise and which legal form it has: a one-man business, a partnership or a private or public limited.

The Chamber of Commerce could run a trade name investigation for you to make sure that the selected trade name does not infringe the rights of other enterprises. This trade name investigation is not free of charge.

Holland Gateway (the cooperation of the Netherlands Chambers of Commerce, Ministry of Economic Affairs and other official institutions) is located at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. This bureau promotes the ease of doing business in the Netherlands.

How to register your enterprise

Registration requirements

Once you have decided upon your business’ legal form, you can have your enterprise registered at the local Chamber of Commerce. Registration should take place within a period of one week preceding, and one week following the actual commencement of business activities.

Without registration in the GBA, you will need to submit authenticated proof of your residential address abroad. The person registering the business has to submit a valid proof of identity, which document has to be personally submitted at the Chamber of Commerce. The following documents are accepted as valid IDs:

* a valid travel document (passport or European ID card);
* a valid Dutch driving licence (non-Dutch driving licence not accepted);
* a residence permit issued by the IND;
* a Dutch refugee passport
* a Dutch aliens passport

If you do not start your business at your home address but at a location you have e.g. rented, you will also be requested to show the lease to confirm the business address.

Once the registration has been completed, you will be given a unique eight-figure registration number. This KvK number should be referred to on all your outgoing mail. Free of charge, you will receive an extract of your registration, a KvK-uittreksel'(excerpt).

Who can register the enterprise

When an enterprise is registered at the Chamber of Commerce, it is of the utmost importance that the registration forms which are submitted have been signed by the right person. Depending on the legal form of the enterprise, the forms can be registered in the Trade Register by:

* the owner of the one-man business (registration of a one-man business),
* the partners (registration of a general partnership, VOF, and a professional partnership, maatschap’)
* or the general partners (registration of a limited partnership, CV’)
* If the enterprise is a legal person, a BV, the civil-law notary will usually see to the registration formalities.

The persons who should register the enterprise and sign the registration forms can also be held responsible in the event an enterprise is not registered.

In special circumstances other persons may be authorized and/or obliged to see to the registration of an enterprise. The Chamber of Commerce can advise you on these circumstances.

Registration forms

The registration forms can be downloaded from the Chamber of Commerce website. As a statutory requirement, all forms are in Dutch and have to be completed in Dutch. Translations in English of forms 6, 11 and 13 are available to assist you while filling in the Dutch form to be handed in.
Registration is not free of charge. When you register a business, a fee will be due for the calendar year the enterprise is registered in. After that initial year, an annual fee will be charged in the first quarter of each year. The total sum of this contribution depends on the legal form.

After registration

Once the enterprise has been registered, it is the owner or partner’s responsibility to keep the information up-to-date. With a BV the manager authorised to act on behalf of the BV is responsible.

Permits and Licences

Most business activities can be performed without any permits or licences, but for some activities, like catering business, transport or taxi firm, you do need a licence. And an environmental permit may be required if your products or business operations negatively affect the environment. Permits and licences can be applied for at the municipality or at the provincial authorities.

Check how you can use your degree or diploma for your business in the Netherlands. International Credential Evaluation: http://www.idw.nl/international-credential-evaluation.html

Some sectors require registration with an industry board or a product board. Registration is a statutory requirement, based on the Act on Business Organisations. An industry board is a kind of interest group for a specific sector. The same applies to a product board, which includes all enterprises in a production chain, from producers of raw material to manufacturers of end products.

Termination / dissolution of the enterprise

When transferring or selling your company, you will have to comply with a number of rules and regulations. You should also enter information about the sale into the Trade Register and reach a settlement with the Tax and Customs Administration. A business transfer within the family involves several other tax aspects.

Expatica will publish Becoming a self-employed entrepreneur the Netherlands (part 1) on Sunday 27 February.

Chambers of Commerce
The Dutch Chambers of Commerce provide information on starting a business, legal forms, registration in the trade register, international trade etc. We have accumulated knowledge, contacts and partnerships, which makes it the essential reference point for every firm doing or seeking to do business.

Drop by for specific information
Apart from general information, the Chambers of Commerce will be glad to provide you with further details regarding your specific position: either at the start of your business or while running it.

If you are located and/or interested in the Region Amsterdam:
Do call 020-5314684 for a consultation with one of our specialists of the Bedrijfsvoorlichting department.

Why Has The Nature Of Fame And Hollywood Celebrities Transformed In Modern Decades

Hollywood celebrities in the USA have always offered us an outlet for our imagination, just as the gods and demigods of historic Greece and Rome once did. Hollywood celebrities are our myth bearers; carriers of the divine forces of good, evil, lust, and redemption. “The wish for kings is an old and familiar wish, as well-known in medieval Europe as in ancient Mesopotamia,” writes Lewis Lapham in his book The Wish For Kings. “The ancient Greeks assigned trace elements of the divine to trees and winds and stones. A river god sulks, and the child drowns; a sky god smiles, and the corn ripens. The modern Americans assign similar powers not only to whales and spotted owls but also to individuals blessed with the aura of celebrity.”

Historically, famous people were recorded in stone and in paint. Alexander the Great was the first famous person in a modern day sense, contends Leo Braudy, Ph.D., professor of English in the University of Southern California and author of The Frenzy of Renown. “Not only did he want to be unique, but he wanted to tell everybody about it, and he had an apparatus for telling everybody about it. He had techniques for doing famous things. He had historians, painters, sculptors, gem carvers on his battles.”

Heroes, all of us might agree, bring intrinsic benefit-the essence of the heroic and the noble. Durable gods serve to raise our vision above the mundane.

But fame isn’t what it used to be. Hollywood celebrities are borne aloft on pictures marketed, sold, and disseminated with a rapidity and cunning not imagined by the heroes of old, and then just as quickly cast aside.

“We’re in the Kleenex phase of fame,” claims Braudy. “We see so much of people, and in all branches of the media. We blow our nose on every new star that happens to come along and then dispose of them.” Just about every year brings a brand new Sexiest Man Alive. Technology has transformed fame making sure that it is far more immediate and instantaneous-and our curiosity with it has become a lot more fickle.

Where once the renowned attained an almost godlike status, one that appeared impermeable and historical (bear in mind Lincoln or Washington, Charles Lindbergh or Jesse Owens), today Hollywood celebrity exist for and by an information age. Within our worldwide and atomized planet of bits and bytes, where information is immediately available and massive in its amounts, and as perishable as an electronic photo, Hollywood celebrities help personalize that content. They put a human face on it. Alas, they are diminished in the process. The issue is, so are we.

Information will come at us with incredible speed, in innumerable transforming faces and stories, on Court Television, on CNN in 24-hour play. We’ve far too much information about Hollywood celebrities these days-their love affairs, their private conversations on mobile phones, the colour of their underwear, how many nose jobs they’ve had, how many intestinal polyps our presidents have had taken out. But the surfeit of information strips the famous of the sacred and heroic-therefore our culture and our own lives-as heroes reflect what we feel is best in ourselves.

What a Criminal Defense Lawyer Can Do For You

If you are accused of a crime, the only person that can help you out is a criminal defense attorney. This is because you are not familiar with how the judiciary system works which makes it hard for you to represent yourself in open court.

This is because a lot of the legal rules are hidden away in court interpretations of federal and state constitutions. A good example is whether or not the search of your home was reasonable. It can only be considered a good search if the police obtained a warrant otherwise anything found is not admissible in court.

Given that the criminal defense lawyer has crossed swords with the prosecution in the past, they are already familiar with the tactics that the opposing party will be using and be prepared for it.

As you can see, it is a very specialized field and there are many things that need to be checked out by your criminal defense lawyer before you are given a guilty or not guilty verdict.

When your case has been given to them, you will be asked what happened. You will have to give your version of the events that took place. After listening, they will provide you with a reality check especially what will happen should the case go to trial.

They will then review the police report, interview witnesses and examine the evidence. Since it is hard to look at everything on their own, they sometimes have researchers do it.

When you are arraigned in court, you are required to submit a plea. You could plead guilty or not guilty while some do not give one yet and then prepare for the trial date.

If the evidence against you is overwhelming, perhaps your criminal defense lawyer can negotiate so you can get a lighter sentence or reduced charges. This can only happen if this is your first time or you have a criminal record and you have something to trade.

For those who want to go to trail, the criminal defense lawyer will now prepare your defense. This may sometimes mean taking up your stand and telling the court the events that took place. This may be risky so before hand, you will be briefed on what to say.

Witnesses will be presented. Some of these people will be able to aid in your defense while others will be against you so another job that the criminal defense lawyer will do is cross examine them in order to cast doubt in the testimony they are giving.

The trial is almost over when the criminal defense lawyer and the prosecution give their closing arguments. The jury will then be given time to deliberate the case so you will know the verdict when they come back into the court and read it.

If you get a not guilty verdict, the criminal defense lawyer was able to do their job since you are a free man. But if you are guilty, then the next step is to appeal the decision to a higher court and hopefully, they will overturn that decision.

What a criminal defense lawyer does is not easy because the person they are helping out could commit a similar crime again or even worse in the future. Sadly, this is how the justice system works because everyone has a right to counsel and tried before their peers.

The Seven Deadly Sins Of Divorce

SPEAK OUT OF TURN DURING COURT. Each judge has a system, and that system is their way of maintaining orderliness in their courtroom. Honor the system, or you may damage your credibility with the judge.

#6 ASSUME YOUR SPOUSES SILENCE MEANS AGREEMENT. A woman left her soon-to-be ex-husband a voicemail, telling him she would not sign the Agreed Decree for divorce because its terms were unfair. She requested extra time to file a response. Although her husband did not return her call, she was absolutely certain he would grant her the extra time.

Instead of granting her the extra time, her husband proceeded with forging the womans signature on the Agreed Decree, hoping it would be finalized and he would be able to enforce its unfair terms against the woman.

What is the point of this story? Do not assume your spouses silence means he/she is in agreement with you.

#5 FAIL TO FULLY RETAIN YOUR DIVORCE ATTORNEY. Your divorce case will be fact-intensive and will involve time. Once you get to the half-way point of the divorce process, your attorney will be intricately involved.

Fully retain your attorney, or you may have to find a new attorney, which would set your case back significantly.

#4 USE PROFANITY IN THE COURTROOM. Inside of the courtroom, there is a high level of decorum that the judges bailiff, the judges clerk, and the judge himself will expect you to honor. Refrain from using profanity in the courtroom.

#3 HOLD YOUR CHILD FOR RANSOM. You may have heard of a case like this: Per a Temporary Agreement, mom has custody of her six-year-old son, and dad, who lives out of state, gets him during school breaks and holidays. Everything goes okay until the end of Christmas break, when dad fails to show up at the agreed-upon meeting point to return son to mom. Dad wont return moms frantic phone calls. Dad calls mom the next day, saying son will be living with him, and if she wants to see him again, she will have to agree to new terms.

At the point when dad uttered those words, he committed Contempt of Court. Withholding your child from your spouse in exchange for more favorable terms is against the law and will be punished. Do not hold your child for ransom against your spouse!

#2 DO SOMETHING DRASTIC. Here is a checklist of “drastic” mistakes spouses sometimes make:

Leave a voicemail, or send an e-mail or note to your child, bad-mouthing their mom/dad.

Bribe your child (candy, an X-box 360, etc.) so that the child will tell the judge he wants to live with you.

Hide, or ask a friend to hide, your marital assets.

Hire a friend/co-worker to spy on your spouse.

Forge signatures/documentation.
When in doubt about the proper action, always ask your divorce attorney.

#1 LIE TO THE JUDGE WHILE UNDER OATH.

Immigration LawyerChoosing The Proper Immigration

Years ago, vacationers to the United States went through the immigration processes at Ellis Island, New York City. Those trying to immigrate at the moment, face a tangle of confusing laws. The United States immigration code is incredibility complicated and even politically divisive. Any immigrate who wants the benefits of American citizenship, ought to think about an immigration attorney. This is especially true of those who, for no matter motive, haven’t got all their necessary paperwork.

If you might be submitting a petition for a green card or a Visa or you have to keep away from work or deportation then you have to an immigration lawyer. Most of them are sincere and hardworking professionals who’re there to help you. Nonetheless, you need to be very cautious when you are deciding on one. There are several legal professionals who’re liars and not dependable. They charge exorbitant fees and will only take you round in circles. Let me offer you just a few tips about the way to choose the fitting lawyer in your case:

If you make a mistake while making an attempt to file your personal immigration software, you is perhaps charged certain fees. A very good immigration lawyer might help you assess your situation and give you the recommendation you need. This is vital in case you are in bother or dealing with deportment. Immigration attorneys can help you as you file for asylum.

Wrong Recommendation – Watch out for unethical recommendation given by attorneys who are mere money-spinners. If the attorney tells you to document a lie, you’re in the mistaken hands. By no means trust such a lawyer and do not even hire his or her services.Petition preparers or Visa consultants – Such brands of individuals are not immigration lawyers in the correct sense of the term. They simply prey on foreigners who need some help for his or her immigration and only help in typing out the varied documents. Any average individual can prepare his or her petition and such visa consultants are ineffective on your immigration issues.

Court Hearings Moreover, if the immigrant is unable to seem in court docket attributable to a serious sickness or another disabling condition occurs to keep them away from an immigration court hearing, your lawyer can act in your behalf. You would possibly be capable of reschedule or attraction a decision made.

A good immigration lawyer will be capable to give trustworthy and detailed assessment of your case. He’ll tell and clarify all accessible choices in the light of not only current laws, but also payments under consideration. Further, a lawyer will put together your case and represent you in appropriate federal agencies. A lawyer may defend your pursuits in appellate proceedings.

If you actually need to proceed to find a lawyer, I will share the site I went the opposite day here: find a lawyer now!

Legal Issues of Electronic Messaging

Electronic mediums lend themselves to informality. When people forget that electronic messages are actual records of communication that can be used in court, this can lead to serious legal trouble. Whether it’s an email or a Facebook comment, electronic messages can be used in legal disputes in the same way that paper records have been used in court for decades. >

Electronic Messaging at the Office
It’s never a good idea to mix personal uses with company email systems or electronic message boards. Tracking whether an employee is using email for personal use instead of working is harder than, say, tracking whether he’s using the company phone for personal use. But using company electronic messaging systems for informal purposes can make employees careless. Gossiping via email can lead to libel and harassment issues that can escalate to serious legal disputes.

Employer Liability
It’s important for employers to put in place a solid electronic messaging policy. Outlining the proper uses of company electronic messaging systems and drawing a clear line between work and personal uses will save companies a lot of trouble in the future. It’s important for both employees and employers to remember that just because you erase a sent email, it does not mean that that email cannot be retrieved. Any legal liability that can result from a written paper document can also result from an electronic message. Furthermore, third parties can seek legal action against an employer as a result of the electronic messaging activity of the company’s employees. These activities may include libeling a rival company or violating spam laws. Electronic messages can also be used as evidence in sexual harassment suits and cases involving workplace slander and discrimination.

Copyright Law
In terms of copyright issues that can arise from improper use of electronic messages, it’s key to remember that just because you have a published document saved on your computer as a PDF file, it doesn’t mean that you own it. If you so much as forward a copy written document to a friend or co-worker, it can be a violation of copyright law. It’s important to get legal discovery help to find out whether you need special permission from the publisher before you copy or share any piece of intellectual property.

Lucky Lottery Systems How to Know Which Winning Lottery System to Try

I cant actually call myself the definitive source on the subject of which winning lottery method to try because I havent personally tried any winning lottery system yet. I havent won a mega lottery jackpot and this article is not a testimonial of the various programs. But the subject interests me and I want to share my opinions.

I think that Im most of the worlds email lists and Ive recently received two mail outs that tweaked my further reading and thoughts on the subject matter. The first I received {spoke of winning the lottery by the law of attraction.

Perhaps youve seen or explored this avenue: the law of attraction used to be a very hot topic and a large number of Internet products are still rooted on principles expressed in The Secret.
Winning Lottery Jackpots using the Law of Attraction The law of attraction works. I can attest to this from my own experience and I deem myself an expert on attracting but I wonder if it works specifically for lottery wins. I suppose that it must but the law of attraction needs absolute faith and therein is the problem.

Think of the law of attraction as being similar to faith healing. The healing doesnt happen without the faith and similarly, the law of attraction will not attract anything beneficial unless you really believe that it will. To perform as it can, the law of attraction needs you to think of it as a law that is as unbreakable as the law of gravity. Can you manage the total belief in a law of attraction winning lottery system? Bearing in mind that any slight wavering in belief nullifies the possibility.

Winning Lottery Jackpots using a Mathematical Formula The other email offer I received was one suggesting that a math teacher had a lottery winning formula for sale. Those who know me may think this type of lottery winning system would be the last one I would use or suggest, but lets look at this objectively.

Even if a numerical system existed to correctly pick winning numbers, then the more people that used the same formula to get exactly the same number sequence would dilute the value of the prize. (This humorously happened in the movie Bruce Almighty). On the other hand, mathematics is always the truth because numbers are not capable of falsehood. Im reminded of a very short science fiction story I read about all the computers being finally linked together to answer the question “Is there a God?” And the amazing computer answered, “Now there is.”

So here is my thinking on this articles topic of how to pick which winning lottery system to buy.

Either try both together, or use neither.
The best chance of winning a big lottery jackpot is with the law of attraction: of that I am certain. But your best way of gaining the degree of certainty required to initiate the law of attraction, is to have something tangible and believable like a proven mathematical lottery winning formula working for you. For the optimum chance of winning a lottery jackpot you would be using the law of attraction to get it and the mathematical formula can focus your mind to do it.

The universe is not random and almost nothing in it is truly random either. Something tips every balance and why any given number comes up in a lottery winning result has been predetermined.

I said either use both the law of attraction lottery program and employ the math professors lottery winning formula, or to employ neither. Ill rephrase it a bit.

Permanent Residence and Student Visa Australia

Australian permanent residence is for those who hold permanent residency visas, but are not citizens of Australia. You may be eligible for a permanent residence if you have lived in Australia for at least 4 years and lived for at least 12 months as permanent residents or in the past six months, completed a professional or trade course in Australia over a period of two academic years. The initial migration visa will be valid for travel for 5 years from the date your application for immigration to Australia is granted. You can enter and leave Australia freely for your period. Individuals seeking permanent residence in Australia have a better chance if they can bring certain professional skills or attributes that are sought after by the Australian government.

Student visa is granted to foreign citizens who want to take advantage of quality education and training system. Visas are granted by the Australian department of immigration and citizenship DIAC. You will be granted a visa if your course is registered on a full-time basis. Student visa are divided into visa subclasses based on the principal course of study in Australia.

The different student visa sub classes include;
1. ELICOS sector student visas (sub class 570)
This visa is for international students who want to study English language intensive courses for overseas students in Australia. 56
2. School sector student visa (sub class 571)
This visa is designed for international students applying to study in Australia and whose main course of study is a primary school course, a secondary school course, including junior and secondary program.

3. Vocational education and training sector visa (subclass 572)
This visa designed for international students applying to study in Australia and whose main course of study is for certificate 1, 2, 3, and 4, diploma or advanced diploma.
4. Higher education sector student visa (sub class 573)
It is for international students applying to study in Australia and whose main course of study is for a bachelor degree, graduate certificate or graduate diploma.
5. Postgraduate research sector student visa (sub class 573)
It is for international students who want to study a masters degree by research or a doctoral degree in Australia.
6. Non-award sector student visa (sub class 575)
It is for students who want to study either a non-award foundation studies course or another full-time course that does not lead to an Australian award in Australia.
7. AUSAID or defense sponsored sector student visa (sub class 576)
It is for students who are sponsored by defense to study a full-time course of any type in Australia.
8. Student guardian visa (sub class 580)
It is designed for the legal custodian or relative of a study visa holder in Australia to accompany the visa holder as a student guardian provided they are less than 18 years of age.