Basics Evaluating The Rate Of A Chemical Reaction

Experimental determination of reaction rates depends upon the nature of reaction under investigation. Rates, can be conveniently studied by measuring the suitable physical property of the system as a whole or one of the constituent of the reaction. The rate of a reaction may be influenced by a number of factors like concentration of the reactants, temperature of the reactants, nature of the reacting substances, presence of a catalysts and exposure to radiations.

When a chemical reaction occurs, the reactants change over to products. It is observed that with the passage of time the concentration of reactants decrease while those of products increase. Now, if we assume that other factors are constant than the rate of a chemical reaction decreases in concentration of the reactants.

Cato Gudberg and Peter Waage proposed a qualitative relationship between the rates of reactions and the concentration of the reacting species. This generalization is known as Law of Mass Action. According to this law at a given temperature, the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of molar concentrations of reacting species with each concentration term raised to the power equal to numerical coefficient of that species in the chemical equation. The rate of reaction when the concentration of each reactant is taken as unity is termed as its rate constant.

The value of rate constant gives an idea about the speed of a reaction. Greater is the value of rate constant, faster is the reaction. Each reaction has a definite value of rate constant at a particular temperature. The value of rate constant also depends on the temperature i.e., changes with change in temperature, but is independent of the concentration of reacting species.

The rate expressions which have been given on the basis of law of mass action are written on the basis of the balanced chemical equations. These expressions may or may not give the actual dependence of the reaction rate on concentrations of reacting species. It is because the actual relationship between the concentrations of reacting species and the reaction rate is determined experimentally and is given by the expression called rate law expression. Theoretically a chemical reaction takes place due to collisions between the particles of the reactants. The number of reacting species (atoms, ions and molecules) which must collide simultaneously in order to bring about the chemical reaction is called molecularity of the reaction. The molecularity of a reaction can be 1, 2, or 3. the decomposition of ammonium nitrate could be termed as a unimolecular reaction. The reactions involving simultaneous collision between two species is a bimolecular reaction like the dissociation of HI. In the same way, reactions involving collision of three species may be termed as trimolecular reactions. So in simple terms, chemical reaction mlecularity is simply the sum of molecules of the different reactants as represented by the balanced chemical equation in an elementary reaction.

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Items Inside Of Legal Transcription For Dummies ; Specifically What Is Recommended

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The Legal Hold Process

What is a Legal Hold?

A legal hold, also referred to as a hold, preservation order, suspension order, freeze notice, hold order, or hold notice, is a notice or communication issued to an organization to preserve all forms of relevant information, as a result of a reasonably anticipated investigation, audit, or lawsuit. A legal hold therefore suspends the normal disposition or processing of records.

Legal Hold and eDiscovery

With today’s technology, organizations use digital data in day to day operations. Though this may seem to be an advantage in doing tasks and in increasing productivity, the reliance on using digital data has caused a rapid growth in electronically stored information (ESI). This has lead to recent amendments in the United States Federal Rules of Civil Procedure ordering the inclusion of digital data in a legal hold (eDiscovery). The information to be preserved during a legal hold therefore is not only limited to documents in paper form, but also to electronically stored information- from word documents, excel files, email exchanges to images, audio files, website logs, etc.

More and more businesses have started to pay attention to eDiscovery and invest in ediscovery software and information management systems as litigations that required eDiscovery of files have cost industry giants millions of dollars in fines. In the famous Zubulake v. UBS Warburg case, Judge Scheindlin awarded a total of $29M to Laura Zubulake who accused her former employer UBS Warburg, one of the big names in financial firms, for gender discrimination and illegal retaliation. Despite court orders that were issued to preserve all relevant information, it was found out that the employer had willfully deleted relevant emails. The court has also noted that UBS Warburg’s legal counsel was partly responsible for the document destruction because it had failed to locate, preserve, and to timely produce relevant information. Merck & Co., Inc, a pharmaceutical conglomerate, lost $253M in a lawsuit filed by the family of Robert Ernst, a marathon runner who’s cause of death was associated with the long term effects of using Vioxx, a pain reliever manufactured by Merck. The plaintiff’s legal counsel argued that Merck rushed Vioxx to market without proper safety testing to compete with Pfizer Inc.s Celebrex, then played down potential heart risks. Discovered emails sent by Merck’s chief scientist questioning the efficacy of Vioxx contributed to the outcome of the case. Morgan Stanley, another financial giant, was ordered to pay billionaire financier Ron Perelman more than $1.4B after losing to a case related to Perelman’s 1998 sale of his Coleman camping gear company to Sunbeam. A big factor in the outcome of the case was the inability to produce requested information due to a badly performed eDiscovery.

The Legal Hold Process

A legal hold process is composed of three main requirements.

Hold notification. Once an organization learns that a pending or reasonably anticipated litigation exists, it are obliged to preserve all relevant information. An organization should notify employees of the need to preserve relevant information and should also have a written policy with regards to the legal hold process. Determining the relevance of information to be preserved partly lies with the ability of an organization’s legal counsel and its existing document retention policies.

Segregated repository for ESI. Due to the significant risks associated with deleting, losing, or not having access to electronically stored information, a segregated repository should be utilized to handle ESI.

Ongoing preservation obligation. Once litigation notice is served, all future relevant electronic communication should also be preserved as a part of the legal hold.

Chapter 15 of Information Nation Warrior: Information Management Compliance Boot Camp (Randolph A. Kahn, ESQ and Barclay T. Blair) discusses what organizations should include in developing a Legal Hold process: A policy specifically for the legal department to provide a Legal Hold notice to the rest of the organizations’ employees, an outline and updated training program for employee responsibilities and preservation procedures, a standardized method for providing the Legal Hold notice to employees, a statement from organization leader or training manuals that emphasizes the organization’s commitment to records and information management compliance, and to make sure that employees are following these policies.

How the Current Recession has Affected the Legal Industry

No matter what industry you ask, the current economic climate has affected everyone in America. There are very few industries that are recession-proof and it shows with condensed individual earnings, tremendous unemployment rates, manufacturers going out of business and more. The legal industry, while many alleged would be recession-proof because there will always be a need for lawyers, has also taken a hit. Here are a few positive and negative factors the present recession has affected the legal industry.
Law firms of all sizes and years of expertise closed their doors because of a lack of business or because higher management didn’t have the information on how to run smoothly to stay open.
Lawyers, legal assistants, management, paralegals, and among others were forced to take a cut in their earnings, give up bonuses, or were just laid off because of budget cuts and a low demand for work. And those people who were booted were directed to look into staffing agencies for full-time work or sought after higher education and refresher classes to make themselves more appealing to law firms looking to hire more workers.
There’s been a need for legal representation for people looking to be spoken for in court for financial and other legal causes. Big corporations looking for legal action alongside each other have also needed to allot lawyers to stand for them in the courts, keeping law firms demanding throughout the recession.
Paralegal staffing companies may have seen that they had to work with a smaller number of clients because they were either too frantic with other extensive cases or weren’t given enough resources to finish their work.
Those in the need for legal help are allowed to be choosy about which firm they would like to work with because lawyers are still fighting for their work and are battling with competing firms for their business.
Because of lower budgets, law firms had to cut down the kinds of benefits given to their employees, like ornate company excursions and parties, paid working meals, and extras that many of their employees were used to prior to the recession.

Posted in Law

Reasons to Update Your Will

A will is a legally binding contract that is widely considered one of the most important documents you will ever sign. The majority of parents with children actually do not have a will and without one you will not be able to allocate your children any benefits. The general consensus is that after death the eldest family member will have control of your estate, however the reality is this will be decided in court and a judge will end up with the final say. Here are three fantastic reasons to update your will.

Relationships

Over the years you may have developed new relationships with people and organisations, such as finding a new partner or becoming a member of a charity or church. You may want to adjust your will to eliminate any old relationships so that they will no longer receive your benefits upon death. Newborns can be listed as beneficiaries and children who have reached adolescents can be listed as executors.

Income and Assets

You may have listed your car, estate or business in your will and these assets may have changed. Even if you have not sold any of these assets, the value has still changed, for instance your car depreciates and your business grows in revenue. As such the insured amount listed on your will is going to be different and a lot of complications can arise when dealing with these matters after death.

Residency

The location where you created your will is governed by state laws. If you have changed location since then, you will need to consult an attorney to find the legitimacy of your will. State laws can be very different from each other and have different qualifying requirements.

The Law

Laws change all the time and you will want to keep up to date with any legislation affecting your will. The best way is to visit an attorney of the state who can help to validate your will for you and inform you of any changes in law.

Yearly Checklist

The best way to keep up to date is to simply have a yearly check up. Law firms specialising in estate battles can review your will and can work with you to successfully create your ideal will. At the end of the financial year is when most changes take place and is the best time to review your estate, assets, income, superannuation and all other elements that fall into your will.

List down a checklist and consider the following 10 points: children, marriage/separation, death of beneficiaries, location changes, circumstantial changes, state laws, taxation law, time since last review, new business and income increase/decrease.

Your will dictates where your assets will go after death and without one a judge will decide for you. This includes ownership of children under the matured age. If you would like to know more or if you are ready to take another look at your will then jump online and search for a law firm that specialises in estate battles.

Colours that add a splash to your wedding day

Choosing a colour scheme for your wedding can be a tough decision, and is often the source of great worry for brides to be. The colour you pick will set the tone and style for the entire day, and while the majority of brides will stick with white or cream for their own dresses, choosing a colour for the bridesmaids, flowers, ties for the groom and ushers and even tableware is not as easy as it seems.

There are many things to consider when deciding on the colour theme, and the time of year will play a big role. Yellows and pinks are great for spring weddings, while traditionally dark green and reds are often better suited to a winter wedding.

The wedding venue should also be taken into consideration, and you should always choose colours that complement the setting, the carpet, walls and decoration. Also, think about what mood you want to create. Soft colours can evoke a traditional, romantic atmosphere, while bold colours can add a modern, dramatic twist.

Brides should also think about the colour they want their bridesmaids to wear as this will influence the rest of the theme. While you may have your heart set on a pink wedding, if your bridesmaids arent happy wearing this, or if it doesnt suit them, then you may have to reconsider.

When you have decided on the colour of your wedding, whats the best way of working this into your big day? This is normally done through your choice of flowers and in your bridesmaids dresses, but you should also consider your table decorations, chair covers and favours. Think about the colour of your wedding cake, or dress up a plain white cake with flowers or a ribbon in your chosen colour. You could swap plain white napkins with coloured versions, or go even further by choosing table cloths to match your scheme.

Wedding colours are like all fashions – what is hot one year may not be the following. In 2011 royal and cobalt blue were trending and this continued into last year with bright and deep blues popular and navy growing in popularity. Purple and red were also top trends in 2012, and black and white were favourable with brides.

So what about for 2013? Last year experts predicted grey and silver would be big in 2013, but when one of the leading wedding venues in Essex, asked its 2013/2014 brides what colour their bridesmaids will be wearing, the overwhelming majority said pink and purple were the colours of choice. Blue was still popular, and neutral colours such as champagne, mink and cream were also trending.

Whatever scheme it is you choose, pick wisely. The colour you decide on will influence your bridesmaids dresses, napkins and even your wedding favours go with what you feel comfortable with and use subtle splashes throughout your entire day.

Understanding Your Legal Team – More Than Just A Lawyer

Sooner or later, you are going to be introduced to the legal profession. This will usually require you to hire a lawyer. This is a surprising task for many people because they don’t realize that a legal team is much more than just a lawyer. In this article, we take a look at the usual members.

The legal team obviously starts out with the lawyer in question. This is the person you meet with when considering who you are going to hire. This person is known as the lead attorney if they are in a law firm or just -the lawyer- in a sole practitioner situation. A law firm has two or more attorneys while a sole practitioner is just one lawyer. Regardless, the lawyer acts more as a CEO of the legal team than you might realize. He or she will guide the team during the workup to trial, but other people will do most of the actual work. This is run of the mill in the legal profession, but often surprises clients.

Associate

The associate is a lawyer that does most of the actual work on a case leading up to trial. The associate tends to be younger and is gaining experience until they are ready to actually go to trial. The associate may issue requests to the other party, take depositions and attend basic mandatory court hearings. The associate will also often write letters updating you on the case. The lead attorney will read these to make sure the case is being handled they way he or she desires.

Paralegal

The paralegal is not an attorney, but is more of an assistant. The paralegal is charged with much of the grunt work. This means gathering and organizing documents. It also means speaking with you, the client, regarding any questions you have. A good paralegal is worth their weight in gold for a busy lawyer.

Secretary

The secretary is the gatekeeper for the attorney. The secretary is a natural skeptic given all the sales calls that come in during the day. Being friendly with the secretary is a smart move. You are much more likely to get through the gate than be told the lawyer is in court or out at a deposition.

It is the rare lawyer that works alone on a case. The amount of grunt work is simply too excessive for it to be feasible. When dealing with your legal team or interviewing a perspective lawyer, make sure to know all the parties involved. It will make things run smoother.

Thomas Ajava writes for WrongfulDeathAttorneysChicago.com – where you can find wrongful death attorneys in Chicago, Illinois.

Is there a scam involved in immigration Services.

Immigration services is a lucrative business yet risky. This is because there are number of consultancies that have been in the wrong side of the business, just to make money. They were not bothered to provide good service to the clients who have invested a huge amount with these consultancies believing their words. There are consultancies that have disappeared on a fine morning after collecting huge amounts from their clients. Even reputed consultancies were affected by these fraudsters. Many of these fraud consultancies have even used the names of the reputed consultancies to lure their prospective clients to the trap. The companies with a good client-ship have to be always alert or else these fraudsters may dupe people by faking your business and it will become a black mark for the reputation of your business.

Some of the consultancies have taken precautionary measures to deal with this kind of duping. Opulentus fake finding team has found out that their name was also used for duping the clients. Fortunately Opulentus fraud finding department is always alert to find any kind of Opulentus scam is being attempted by any of the fraudsters. This helps the company to save the goodwill and trust of the clients. The timely action by the company has ensured that there is no Opulentus fraud or Opulentus scam is in the making. It is very much necessary to the business people to be alert at all times to ensure that nobody is creating any fraud or scams using fake procedures to damages one’s business. This kind of scams happens usually when a business concern has become popular and trust worthy in the society.

It has become very difficult to conduct business in a true manner because of the fraudsters who are always there to dupe innocent clients. This is not limited to immigration services only. You can see these kinds of fraudsters in almost all the businesses. Because of them the reputation and goodwill of people who are into legitimate business are also damaged. It is high time that these kinds of scams are to be detected in the early days to avoid duping large number of innocent people. Opulentus was fortunate enough to find the illegitimate people who are in the course of creating an Opulentus fraud and Opulentus scam due to the high goodwill and reputation they are having by being in the business for more than 10 years and having a trust worthy fraternity of more than 10000 satisfied clients.

Skillselect Brings Changes To Australian Skilled Immigration

Department of Immigration and Citizenship in Australia announces changes to the Australian immigration programs when ever they feel it is necessary. They had introduced a new immigration online application called SkillSelect. The program was rolled on the 1st of July 2012. The application will help the department to take visa decision quickly and efficiently.

Before July 2012, Australian immigration used to have six skilled migrant Australian visa subclasses:

1.Visa Applications in Australia

subclass 885 (skilled independent)
subclass 886 (skilled nominated/sponsored)
subclass 487 (skilled regional sponsored)

2. Visa Applications outside Australia

subclass 175 (skilled independent)
subclass 176 (skilled nominated/sponsored)
subclass 475 (skilled regional sponsored)

To reduce the time taken and cumbersome, the Australian Department of Migration has merged these six and introduced 3 subclasses, starting from the 1st July 2012.

The new skilled visa subclasses are listed below:

subclass 189 (skilled independent) (will replace subclasses 885 and 175)
subclass 190 (skilled nominated) (will replace subclasses 886 and 176)
subclass 489 (skilled regional) (will replace subclasses 487 and 475)

SkillSelect is an online application and has been specifically designed to motivate state sponsorship and employer sponsorship. This will help Australia to fill the current skills shortages, Australia is experiencing. There has been a significant change in the manner that visa applicants will apply for the Australian skilled independent, skilled sponsored and skilled regional sponsored visas.

The applicant has to first fill and submit an expression of interest (EOI). The EOI is a proof to demonstrate that your details have been successfully submitted in the central database and can be seen by employers of Australia. You are now eligibility for Australian skilled worker visa.

The information given by the foreign national who is intending to come to Australia is thoroughly reviewed. Department verifies and reviews the information provided by the visa applicant. Any false or misleading information will result in cancel of application, visa refusal or potential ban from the system.

SkillSelect will ensure that the skilled migration program is beneficial for Australian economic needs. It should support the Australian Government and help them manage the application for skilled migration. This would reduce the visa processing time significantly.

SkillSelect will also help in addressing regional skill shortages of various parts of Australia. SkillSelect is an online application which allows willing migrants to migrate to Australia and live and work in any part of Australia. Employers will also benefit by filling up the required position in time and as per the set guidelines.
Australian visa applicants should take advice and documentation help from an experienced and well known Australian immigration consultancy. This will take their visa approval chance much higher.

Pedestrian Accidents Near Charlotte Schools Underscore Need For Personal Injury Attorney

A recent spate of pedestrian accident outside of Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools has underscored the necessity of contacting a Charlotte personal injury attorney whenever one sustains an injury in an accident, especially if one was a pedestrian, bicyclist, or particularly vulnerable in any way.

The most recent incident occurred near David W. Butler High School in Matthews where a male student was struck by a vehicle and had to be taken to an area hospital. According to MEDIC, the teen did suffer an injury, but it did not appear to be life-threatening. Police reports indicate that the boy was walking along the shoulder and inadvertently stepped out into traffic. He was hit by a vehicle that knocked him backwards. Authorities say that the driver remained on the scene of the accident and will not face any charges.

Over the past month, Charlotte-Mecklenburg high schools have seen two other pedestrian incidents besides the one in Matthews. Outside of Garinger High School, a female student lost her life after being hit by a car. In addition, a student at West Charlotte High sustained a critical injury when struck by a vehicle.

Obviously, pedestrians are particularly susceptible to injury if they are hit by a motor vehicle because they are so vulnerable and totally unprotected. Any contact from a car or other vehicle will most likely result in a serious or life-threatening injury, or tragically, it can result in death as in the case of Brittany Palmer at Garinger High School. And because a pedestrian accident can so often result in a head or brain injury, not only can it be serious, but it can often go misdiagnosed by emergency room medical personal who may be more focused on suturing lacerations and setting broken bones.

Consequently, if you have been involved in any accident in Charlotte in which you sustained injury, it is absolutely essential that you contact a Charlotte personal injury attorney as soon as possible. A personal injury attorney who as experience with accidents of your kind knows how to make sure that you get all of the necessary diagnostic tests so that the presence and extent of any injury or injuries that you may have can be determined. Your Charlotte personal injury attorney will also see to it that you are able to get the medical care necessary to recover to the fullest extent possible from your injury.

When someone else causes you an injury in an accident, you are entitled to compensation. However, that compensation is not always as forthcoming or as much as justice would demand. A Charlotte personal injury attorney will determine and pursue whats appropriate for you.