What Is The Ellis Island Immigration Facility

The Ellis Island Immigrant Facility was the main entry point immigrants had to pass through, from January 1, 1892, until November 12, 1954, in order to enter the United States. It was here that all transatlantic immigrants were inspected, processed, and sometimes held in quarantine About 2% of immigrants were not allowed entry to the United States, and were returned to their home country, earning Ellis Island the nicknames The Island of Tears and Heartbreak Island.

Ellis Island is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River, in New York Harbor, between Jersey City, New Jersey, and New York City, New York. It was originally called Little Oyster Island, and was later named after the man who first owned it, Samuel Ellis.

Prior to 1891, the Castle Garden Immigration Depot in Manhattan was used to process immigrants entering the United States.

Immigrants disembarking onto Ellis Island were viewed by doctors; those who were visibly sick or had obvious medical needs had symbols marked on their clothing in chalk. For example, if a woman was obviously pregnant, the letter PG would be chalked on her clothing; the letter C signified conjunctivitis; an X meant the immigrant was suspected of having mental illness; a circled X meant the immigrant displayed definite symptoms of mental illness.

Some managed to enter the country by turning their clothing inside out or slyly wiping the marks off. For healthy immigrants it generally took from two to five hours to be processed before being admitted into the United States.

For those less fortunate, those who appeared to be ill in either mind or body, the process could take days in the facility hospital. Many of the sick died in the hospital. Immigrants with contagious disease, insanity, or criminal background were rejected; so, too, were those unable to work or without any viable skills.

Some of the buildings on Ellis Island were damaged during World War I, but the facility was still used to intern some enemies, as well as process returning injured or sick U.S. soldiers.

The year 1907 was a busy one for the facility: more than a million immigrants were processed. Mid-April of that year saw a day where nearly 12,000 immigrants were processed. But after the Immigration Act of 1924, which restricted immigration and also allowed processing at embassies over seas, Ellis Island became mainly a detention and deportation processing facility.

Today, Ellis Island is a national landmark and historic site and houses a museum.

Understanding the Objectives of Criminal Law

Los Angeles is governed by different laws that guide its residents on what they should and shouldn’t do. Any violation of the law is punishable and the degree of punishment depends on the extent of the offense. Severe violations of the law that causes serious damages are categorized under criminal offenses. These are weighed by the jury using the guidelines of criminal laws.

Offenses that fall under criminal law are murder, theft, battery, and sexual abuse. Even aiding and abetting, burglary, and assault are considered criminal offenses in Los Angeles and in most part of United States. Criminal offenses are enforced with corporal punishments in different forms and levels.

Criminal law enforcement is commonly done by -balancing the scales-. This is due to the thinking that criminals have to suffer the same way that their victims did. For example, a murderer deserves to undergo death penalty to balance the scales. This enforcement objective is called retribution.

Another enforcement objective is called deterrence, whether individual or general. Individual deterrence aims to punish the sole offender, while general deterrence aims to punish a greater group of society to discourage others from violating the law. A criminal attorney in los angeles may also be handling a case in which the law enforcers aim to incapacitate the client. Incapacitation is the act of extracting the offender from the society through death penalties or life imprisonment.

A criminal attorney in los angeles may also encounter law enforcers who aim only to rehabilitate the offender. This applies to criminal cases brought about by a certain form of addiction of the offender. There is also another form of enforcement objective called restitution where the only aim is to repair the damage done. These may seem like subtle consequences, yet these cases still need the assistance of criminal lawyers.

A criminal attorney in los angeles handles these cases because of his or her expertise in criminal law. Criminal charges are filed in courts and undergo a long process of stressful court proceedings. Once an accused person is proven guilty, enforcement of criminal law is done for different objectives.

How To Select Personal Injury Lawyer

If you suffered in a personal injury accident that because of someone else’s fault, you should consult with a lawyer to make a claim and get the compensation you deserved.

However, insurance companies will try all their best to take advantage of you if you should decide to sue, so it is not wise for you to personally meet the insurance company without your lawyer present. An experienced personal injury lawyer will know how to successfully negotiate with the insurance company and handle your case.

Anyway, it is really a time consuming and challenging task to select a proper lawyer for yourself. Here are some important qualities for your reference when selecting your lawyer.

Experience – The most important thing you should think about is the lawyer’s experience. You will never want to hire a green hand in your case. The more case like yours the lawyer experienced, the more successfully your case would be handled. A good lawyer is the one who experienced so many such cases and will know what to do immediately without researching your case or check court decisions. This will save you a lot of time and energy.

Specialization – You should try to find a lawyer who is specializing in handling cases like yours. Experiences are very important but they should be related to your case. Thus, the lawyer will be familiar with your case and he/she will have a well-thought-out plan about how your case should handled, which will largely enhance the chance for your case to be successful. For example, if you were injured in a slip and fall accident, you wouldn’t want a lawyer who is majored in real estate.

Reputation – You should also take the lawyer’s reputation into consideration when trying to find one. The more successful similar cases he/she has handled, the more possible for your case to win. So if a family member or friend can recommend a lawyer that has good work experiences in cases similar to yours, then it is advisable for you to make the appointment to meet the lawyer. Besides, if the lawyer is a member of American Association for Justice (AAJ), that previously was known as the Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA), which is the biggest association for personal injury lawyers in the United States, then he/she must have a higher reputation than others.

These tips are just some guidelines for you to select a qualified personal injury lawyer. Remember, the step of selecting your lawyer may be crucial to your case result.

Faqs For Those Searching For Reputable Mesothelioma Lawyers

If you or a loved one is a victim of mesothelioma, then there are some facts you may wish to consider. It is not uncommon for many people to be a little uncertain when it comes to consulting mesothelioma lawyers for advice and even potential lawsuits to claim damages. Dont be overwhelmed when searching for legal advice. Get started on your path to legal guidance by reading through this assortment of frequently asked questions provided by knowledgeable mesothelioma lawyers.

Is it true that asbestos is still a viable occupational hazard in the twenty-first century?

Although asbestos was primarily mined and used in various manufacturing operations and products between the years of 1940 and 1979, there are still many unfortunate cases involving its use today. In fact, nearly 125 million people were still exposed to asbestos in 2010 around the globe through their work alone, despite the fact that there are a large number of synthetic materials proven to be much safer. Mesothelioma lawyers have helped many victims of asbestos exposure receive payment for personal damages resulting from occupational or environmental exposure to this substance.

What occupations do mesothelioma lawyers feel are most at risk for asbestos exposure today?

Most of the occupations that are at risk for exposure today exist within the construction industry. Many construction workers may come in contact with this dangerous mineral as a component of construction materials; and especially in the renovation or demolition of structures, which are known to contain asbestos. Other at risk positions include workers in equipment or building maintenance. Additionally, a number of rescue workers may have been exposed to this and other toxic substances during the tragic disaster of September 11. Although there are stringent bans and restrictions in place throughout the United States, there are still many countries around the world that have not banned the use of asbestos. Mesothelioma lawyers are well-versed in the unfortunate listing of risky occupations and environments for workers who may come into contact with asbestos while employed.

Is there any recourse for workers or individuals coping with asbestos-related exposure and illnesses?

Yes there is. Todays mesothelioma lawyers are experts at understanding the legislative process, which may help to satisfy a portion of the damages suffered by victims of mesothelioma and their families. There are a number of legal precedents and restrictions in place that seriously affect any company or organizations ability to haphazardly expose workers to such a toxic material. These experienced mesothelioma lawyers know exactly how to accomplish a settlement that provides some small relief to workers and their families that have been unfairly exposed for business gain.
If you or anyone you know is dealing with the tragic illness of mesothelioma, or other asbestos-related cancer, then you may want to consider contacting one of the mesothelioma lawyers at Baron and Budd, P.C. With a proven track record for helping victims around the United States, these mesothelioma lawyers know how to obtain a fair settlement for unlawful exposure to asbestos.
Sources:

1.)11 December 2010 .

2.) Haining Yang, Zeyana Rivera, Sandro Jube, Masaki Nasu, Pietro Bertino, Chandra Goparaju, Guido Franzoso, Michael T. Lotze, Thomas Krausz, Harvey I. Pass, Marco E. Bianchi, and Michele Carbone. Programmed necrosis induced by asbestos in human mesothelial cells causes high-mobility group box 1 protein release and resultant inflammation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2010; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1006542107

Citizenship and Immigration

For many Americans, their U.S. citizenship issued at birth is something they dont think twice about. But for applying immigrants, citizenship is a serious goal.

Hopefully most American natural born citizens understand that citizenship is one of the most greatly desired gifts this countrys government can bestow on its citizens. For those of us who have not had to go through the process of becoming a U.S Citizen apart from being naturally born here, there is only one other way to become U.S. citizens and that is by the often times-lengthy process of what is known as “naturalization”.

Naturalization can often times be a complicated process so you should consult with an immigration lawyer rather than attempting this yourself. Even something as simple as travel within the country or state is something that a person needs to know the rules about and this is where an Immigration lawyer is needed so that you have someone to ask questions such as “How long does it take for USCIS to issue work permission and travel permission?” or “When should I renew my work and travel permission?”

Learning about your new country and its rights and the responsibilities that accompany citizenship is an important part of being a good citizen and at the USCIS and the Office of Citizenship they have developed a great amount of resources and a variety of educational materials that allow immigrants to learn more about U.S. history and government as they prepare for the naturalization test.

A final thought on the naturalization process; in addition to finding good counsel and being represented by an immigration lawyer, there are general requirements that the USCIS will look for by those who look to make our great country their home, to name just a few: good moral character, a knowledge and understanding of U.S. history and government, and favorable disposition toward the United States.

Excellent Fiancee Visa Service for My Thai Fiancee by USA Immigration Law Thailand

Brian Wrights USA Immigration Law Thailand service was really great for us when I was a several thousand miles away from my Thai Fiancee in Thailand and we needed our Fiancee Visa processed to be done. Brian Wright made everything completely manageable though the stumbling blocks of the fiancee visa process seemed almost insurmountable considering the distance and language barriers. Brian Wright and his staff took the time to make sure we understood the fiancee visa process and kept us from making any mistakes that would have cost us time. Brian Wright even took the time to help us after we returned to the United States and DHS screwed up our paperwork for the Change of Status.

My Thai Fiancee is happily in America I want to thank Brian Wright for the excellent fiance visa service he provided. Everything went very smoothly and he took care of everything exactly as Brian Wright promised.

Having lived and worked around the world, I knew upfront the process for getting a fiance visa was not going to be easy. There are many obstacles to overcome such as the following:

The many documents the Thai applicant must obtain.

The Medical and Police report.

The form in English that need to be completed by the Thai applicant.

Knowledge of the Embassy and the process and customs for a successful application.

The many documents that must be supplied by the petitioner.

Brian Wrights fiance visa service was excellent and he helped make the whole fiancee visa process very simple for both of us. My Fiancee commented many times that she fell very comfortable with the way he was handling the fiance visa application. This helped her to relax and be less anxious through the fiancee visa process.

USA Immigration Law Thailand firms sole area of practice is fiancee visa, marriage visa & CR-1 marriage visa from Thailand to the United States. USA Immigration Law Thailand does not process other types of visas to America, nor does process visas to other countries.

The only additional services USA Immigration Law Thailand provides support the fiancee visa and marriage visa application process.

As a result of USA Immigration Law Thailand firms sole focus on processing fiancee visa and marriage visa from Thailand to the USA, USA Immigration Law Thailand have processed more visas to the USA from Thailand than all other Thailand based and US based immigration attorneys and visa service companies, combined. This has earned USA Immigration Law Thailand firm the distinction of being the most experienced and knowledgeable in this field.

USA Immigration Law Thailand firm, which is based in Thailand and America, is headquartered in Thailand as the primary focus of the visa application process is with your Thai fiance or Thai wife.

I (Anthony S., Pennsylvania, USA) would surely recommend USA Immigration Law Thailand by Brian Wright to anyone trying to get a Visa to the United States from Thailand for Thai Fiance.

Again, thank you for your excellent fiancee visa service.

Medicare and California Sales Tax An Analysis

Theres a rumor going around that a 3.8 percent sales tax will be applied to home sales in order to fund Medicare under the Affordable Care Act. Although that rumor is patently false, there has always been sales tax associated with certain Medicare-covered transactions.

Specifically, if your firm sells medical supplies and has been treating sales under Medicare Part B (Medicare B) as exempt from California sales tax, it is sitting on a fiscal time bomb. Since the program began, the California State Board of Equalization (Board) has been regularly assessing sales tax on Medicare B transactions in its audits.

Even businesses reporting correctly are generally confused about why sales under Medicare B are treated differently from sales under Part A. This article will discuss the different treatments and explain how sales tax applies to Medicare receipts in general.

Some sales under Medicare are always exempt, simply because the products involved fall under the general California exemption for prescription medicines. However, such transactions are outside the scope of this article, which solely addresses products ordinarily considered taxable when sold to patients. (Medical services are exempt from sales taxes in general, in California and nearly everywhere else.)

In order for an otherwise taxable product to be exempted from sales tax under Medicare, the product must be considered sold to the United States government rather than to the patient. Sales to the U.S. government are exempt from sales tax for Constitutional reasons. This exemption has been codified in California Revenue and Taxation Code Section 6381 and is further delineated by Sales and Use Tax Regulation 1614.

Whether a Medicare transaction is considered an exempt sale to the U.S. government or a taxable sale to an individual patient depends on whether the sale falls under Medicare Part A or Part B. All sales under Part A are regarded as exempt sales to the U.S. government. Sales under Part B are considered made directly to the patient, and they are taxable unless some other exemption applies (such as the exemption for sales for resale or sales in interstate commerce). Differences between Parts A and B that give rise to this distinction are discussed below.

Financing and Participation:

Medicare A is financed through payroll withholding and self-employment taxes. Participation is mandatory for anyone within the Social Security system. Most people who pay the taxes that fund Medicare A are under retirement age and not yet eligible for Medicare coverage.

Medicare B is financed partly through monthly premiums paid by those covered under the program. The rest of the financing comes from general funds of the federal government. Anyone covered by Part A is eligible for Part B, but participation in Part B is optional. Once participants enroll in the Medicare B program, they are required to pay the monthly premiums, generally through withholding from their Social Security checks.

Cost to Participants:

Medicare A is funded entirely through self-employment taxes and the Medicare percentage withheld from employee paychecks and matched by employers. There are no costs specific to participants.

Medicare B is charged directly to each participant, generally by a monthly deduction from the participants Social Security check. The monthly costs are considered medical insurance premiums and may be claimed as an itemized deduction on the participants income tax return.

Payment of Claims:

Medicare A payments are made directly to providers of medical products or services under a procedure mandated by federal law. Since the law requires direct payment by the U.S. government to providers, medical supplies sold by providers under Medicare A are considered sold to the U.S. Government.

Medicare B payments may be made either to providers or patients. If a provider has agreed to accept assignment of Medicare benefits (which essentially constitutes agreement to accept Medicares version of “reasonable charges”), the provider prepares and submits a claim form and is reimbursed directly by the insurer acting on behalf of the U.S. government. The patient pays only the deductible, co-insurance or non-allowable costs.

If the patient uses a provider who has not agreed to accept assignment of benefits, the patient pays the entire charge and then files a claim for reimbursement. Any such reimbursement goes directly to the patient. Under Medicare B, payments are considered reimbursements of charges to the patient, whether the payments go directly to the patient or to the provider on the patients behalf.

The U.S. Governments Position:

Medicare A does not allow reimbursement for sales taxes charged on medical supplies, based on the theory that providers are selling to the U.S. government and the sales are therefore exempt.

Medicare B has built sales taxes into its calculations of “reasonable charges,” as stated inMedicare Carriers Manualsection 5213. In accepting sales taxes as allowable charges under Medicare B, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has taken the position that sales under the program are not sales to the U.S. government.

Sales Tax Effect:

Medicare A payments are made directly by the U.S. government to providers under federal law, which theoretically results in sales to the United States as discussed above.

Medicare B payments may be made either directly to patients or to providers for the benefit of patients, depending on each patients choice of provider. The patients ability to make this choice has been interpreted to mean that payments under Medicare B are simply reimbursements to patients. Under this “patient reimbursement” theory, any sale by the provider under Medicare B is made to the patient rather than the United States, regardless of which party prepares the claim form or receives the reimbursement check.

Both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the State Board of Equalization have accepted these legal interpretations, and it appears unlikely that an effort to re-characterize sales under Medicare B as sales to the U.S. government would prevail. If the law is ever changed to make direct payments to providers mandatory under Part B, the application of sales tax could well change with it.

Although subject to tax, amounts claimed for 80 percent reimbursement under Medicare B are considered to include applicable sales taxes, because the Medicare Carriers Manual defines “reasonable charges” as including such taxes. Accordingly, when providers report their taxable sales to the Board, they are entitled to claim a deduction for sales taxes included in Medicare B reimbursements.

Conclusion:

The theoretical justification for distinguishing sales under Medicare A from sales under Medicare B may not be entirely logical, but compliance with the Board of Equalizations interpretation is the only prudent approach. If you have been treating all sales under Medicare B as exempt, you should now begin reporting those sales as you would report sales to any private party.

But what about earlier periods? If your firm is selected for a Board audit, you undoubtedly will be billed for additional taxes for those periods. However, the amount of additional taxes may be subject to adjustment. This is true not only for Medicare sales but for any area where tax changes are recommended by Board auditors. Audits incorporate assumptions and tests that often can be modified and occasionally can be overcome.

Always remember that you have the right to review any tax auditors working papers or have a sales tax expert review the audit on your behalf. Exercising that right will at least bring you peace of mind. It might also result in significant tax savings.

Finding the Right Divorce Attorney

Fifty percent of all marriages in the United States end in divorce. That’s not a great statistic, but it’s true. Although divorces may be emotionally combative, most divorces do not end up in a contested trial. With a divorce attorney’s help, parties can negotiate settlements for things such as spousal support, child custody, division of property and so on. Finding the best divorce attorney for your particular case is not an easy task. As you can imagine many divorce lawyers will take your case but they have no vested interest in the final outcome. That’s why your own due diligence is so important when it comes to finding and hiring the right divorce attorney.

Divorce laws are different from state to state so you need to find a divorce lawyer in your local area to best handle your divorce case. You may know of a great lawyer in California that one of your friends or relatives used but if you live in Massachusetts, that won’t do you much good. There are many things you need to consider when choosing a divorce attorney and I’ve tried to outline what I consider to be the most important factors.

Since divorce is not an uncommon occurrence today, chances are you know someone who has already gone through a divorce. So word of mouth from family members, friends and coworkers would be one of the best ways to narrow the field down.

If you have time, you could visit your local courthouse and witness different attorneys handling their clients divorce cases. As I mentioned earlier, most divorces do not end up in trial, but if yours does, you would certainly want the best divorce attorney to handle your divorce case.

Research the attorney you’re considering with the state listing of trials and motions. Since this person will be representing you, make sure everything checks out before you make your decision.

Don’t limit your search to one divorce attorney. Interview many. Find the person you’re most comfortable with and understands what you’re looking for. Ask what kind of divorce attorney they are. Are you and your spouse looking for a settlement, or do you think your case will go to trial? If it will go to trial, you want a divorce lawyer with lots of trial experience.

You could also find out who is on the board of matrimonial lawyers in your local state and the better lawyers are usually on it.

Always have a written agreement with your divorce attorney. Do not hire your attorney on an oral agreement only. This can lead to misunderstandings and could end up costing you more time and money than you bargained for. Make sure your fee agreement, or retainer, is in writing and you understand the terms completely.

Last but not least, get references. There’s nothing more important than references.

Needless to say, this list could go on and on, but you should have a good sense of what to look for. Every case is different so make sure the divorce attorney you choose, is familiar with cases like yours and he/she has your best interest at heart.

Obtaining Employment Immigration Visas To Work In The United States

If you are moving to America from a different country, you will need an employment immigration visa in order to work legally in the country. People who are not American citizens or legally permanent residents must obtain these visas, to work here. The process can be quite complicated if you are not already familiar with it. Hiring an employment immigration attorney can help greatly throughout this process if you want to work in the US on a temporary basis.

If you want to work temporarily in America, you will need a visa that is specific to your line or work and the purpose for your travel to the United States. To obtain this necessary document, you must meet a number of requirements within employment immigration law in the United States. Your employer is also required to file a petition to the U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services on your behalf. If you are seeking permanent residency in the U.S., you will need to obtain a green card. This document will authorize you to work and live permanently in the country.

Obtaining an Employment Authorization Document (EAD) is necessary to prove that you are eligible to work in America. This card is valuable for one year, and it can be renewable. Students and exchange visitors may also be allowed to work in the United States under certain circumstances. These people must obtain permission from a person who is authorized to do so, typically a Designated School Official. Employers are obligated to verify that any individual they hire is authorized to be employed in the United States.

There are a variety of work visas. Exchange visitor visas are available to individuals who are approved to participate in study or work based exchange programs. Temporary work visas are available for foreign workers who are working in specific fields in the U.S. There are also temporary documents for skilled, educated individuals in specialized fields. Green cards are available for foreign individuals who wish to become permanent residents of the United States.

Because this process can be quite convoluted to go through on your own, you may want to consider hiring an attorney who specializes in this field of the law. A legal professional can help you to get through the process easily. Whether you are interested in a permanent or temporary stay in the U.S., it is essential that you get the documents necessary to work legally.

Looking for more information regarding employment immigration? You should visit: .

Are Fully Free Divorce Forms Helpful

Divorce is not a joke and it has been found through various surveys that more than 40% marriage cases ends up in divorce out here in United States. This is not a small percentage and it has been found that majority of these cases ends up through violence. A single marriage might cost around $28000. However, a single divorce also needs expenses equal to buying the car. This is certainly not a small amount. Thus, divorce is not a cheap process. However, it is a necessity and most of the people want to have it as they find out that it is the only solution.

There are many kinds of divorce forms and all of them have some specific job to complete. There are separation forms, divorce decree form, uncontested divorce forms and many more. They are available in court, market, and they are available online as well. The free divorce forms however, are available online only and you cannot get them free anywhere else.

It is important to know the divorce laws in detail; otherwise, it is hard to search for the divorce forms. There are generally two kinds of divorce possible. The first one is the adversarial and the second one is done through mediation. Mediation can be cheaper but the adversarial cases are always costly. Generally, in these kinds of cases, more money is required and hence most of the couples try to find the cheaper method for divorce. It is definitely true that majority of divorce cases in United States are headed by the violence.

However, these are due to relationship and personally both of the spouses wants to break the relationship through easy process. This is the main reason why the divorce forms are now being made available online and many firms are now in this business. These forms can be bought free of cost through many sites. However, there are many pitfalls of the online forms as well. It is hard to find out that these free forms are original or fake. This is the most important problem with the divorce papers and thus there are some facts, which need to be kept in mind.

There is much kind of forms available. The first one is the complete step by step instruction set, original answer forms, affidavit for inability to pay, waiver of citation, affidavit for citation by posting, final divorce decree, certificate of last known address, testimony for divorce and many more. Some of the other forms like marriage settlement forms are also quite popular.

Each product is quite useful and has its own importance. However, sometimes it is better to pay some amount and not buy them free of cost. There might be some virus affecting your computer through free products. Some sites however, can be trusted and free divorce forms can definitely be bought. Through this process, the total cost will be only around 250 to 300 dollars. The adversarial cases cost around 28000 dollars and hence there is no doubt at all the online divorce forms is advantageous.